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SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: chronometric dating; absolute dates; absolute chronology; absolute age determination (antonym: relative dating)CATEGORY: chronology; technique DEFINITION: The determination of age with reference to a specific time scale, such as a fixed calendrical system or in years before present (B.

P., BP), based on measurable physical and chemical qualities or historical associations such as coins and written records.

Heritage- Andrew Jackson’s house- cotton plantation (1776-1845) 130 slaves, largest plantation in Tennessee, 7 president, slave cabins have been investigated- lived in single rooms made out of brick (some duplexes); located on 3 acres; fire places for heating and cooking, attic was a bedroom for children; lots of animal bones fur trading outpost in 1827, 1826-1847 used to house soldiers, Indians and settlers; La Salle and his French Colony, Ft. Louis: didn’t last long, murdered by one of his men, colony attacked except for a few children, Spanish buried the people and cannonsmost controversial; Freedman’s Cemetery in Dallas African Community Cemetery; only 300 death certificates out of 3,000 bodies; eternal data and external data; Little Bighorn Battlefield: human remains found and several burials, Sergeant Edward Botzer Latin for "limit after which," is used to indicate the date after which an artifact must have been deposited.

For example, if an archaeological site contains coins dated 1588, 1595, and others dated 1590 - 1625, the historic artifacts change over time and changes can be measured in years via a mathematical formula; pipe stem dating; SC Harrington- earliest founders of Early American historical archaeology; Lewis Binford: Regression Formula was based on Harrington’s observations of pipe stemshistorical event maps (Gettysburg and Boston Tea Party), Directory maps (pre phone books-name, address, occupation) atlas map (showed individual structures, Sonborn Fire Maps), Bird’s eye view maps (works of art, fairly accurate, reliable source of information), Specialized Map (plantation plans, boundaries of parcel, show location of buildings), Utility maps (show where pipes and sewers were located; 1840) Century Maps (large scale maps) State Mandate Maps (states required counties to conduct surveys and must show everything) County Maps (large wall maps, 1850-1880, sold by subscription) Atlas Maps (property ownership placed by real estate maps, continued to be published to 20Historic archaeology- deal with archaeology of the recent past, deals with shorter periods of time, can study known people, can study peoples whose general histories are known but whose daily lives are not well documented.

Oswald dates this type to about 1680-1730, noting that in England it occurs in the West Country (that is, the Bristol area) and in London and the Home Counties.

In the New World at least, the export version (Oswald's type 9c) and numerous variants and derivatives were universal long after this, and certainly as late as about 1780 (I. In England, Oswald's type 10 continued the more traditional features in various forms.

However, historical archaeology has tended to de-emphasize archaeometric analyses because of the availability of a documentary record.

Absolute dating methods that rely on specialized laboratory analyses such as dendrochronology, radiocarbon, and luminescence measurements are available to historical archaeologists.

In the New World, however, as indicated above, the type 9 shape was universal — perhaps because Bristol, where such pipes are datable to before 1700, was such an important export centre — and there seem in fact to have been definite "export only" models.

With the exception of the Dutch bowls, all bowls from which the shape could be deduced appeared to be basically of Oswald's type 9 (Oswald 1961: 60, 61).

This type of bowl seems to have been the result of the influence of a Dutch pipe type — brought over by the troops of William III at the time of the English Revolution in 1668 — on the traditional barrel-shaped English pipe bowl.

There is no documentary support for that notion, but it is known that used pipes were placed in iron cradles and heat cleansed in bake ovens before being issued to the next round of smokers.

Because the time span of the casemate under study is relatively short (about 50 years) dating of pipes has been done primarily on the evidence of makers' marks and names.